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biospeciesBiospezies (ger.)

  • A group of interbreeding individuals that is isolated reproductively from all other groups. (Oxford Dictionary of Zoology 2009)

    A group of specimens for which there is good evidence that they conform to the biological definition of the species […] [For this meaning] may be used the term[…] biospecies

    Cain, A.J. (1953). Geography, ecology and coexistence in relation to the biological definition of species. Evolution 7, 76-83: 82; id. (1954). Animal Species and their Evolution: 60.


    The recognition of biological species (biospecies) amongst living organisms is usually based on functional criteria—the occurrence of free and fertile cross-breeding between the members of a single species in the natural state, and its absence between members of different species. The criteria reflect the flow of genes and so ultimately the course of evolution, and are thus of high biological importance

    George, T.N. (1956). Biospecies, chronospecies and morphospecies. In: Sylvester-Bradley, P.C. (ed.). The Species Concept in Paleontology, 123-137: 124.


    A species is a biospecies iff (i) it is a natural kind (rather than an arbitrary collection); (ii) all of its members are organisms (present, past, or future); (iii) it descends from some other natural kind (biotic or prebiotic).

    Bunge, M. (1979). Treatise on Basic Philosophy, vol. 4. Ontology II: A World of Systems: 83.


    biospecies 1: A biological species q.v. 2: A species defined primarily on biological characters; cf. morphospecies. 

    Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics: 34.