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transfer RNAtransfer RNA (ger.)

  • RNA that collects particular amino-acids in the cytoplasm of a cell and conveys them to a ribosome, where they are assembled to form part of a polypeptide or protein molecule. (OED 2011)

    The linkage between amino acid and transfer RNA is probably not a simple ester bond in view of recent demonstrations of its high energy content

    Yarmolinsky, M.B. & De La Haba, G.L. (1959). Inhibition by puromycin of amino acid incorporation into protein. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. S.A. 45, 1721-1729: 1722.


    The carboxyl group attached to transfer-RNA (or activated in some other way) then joins with the amino group of the next amino acid in the sequence with the elimination of the valine-bound transfer-RNA.

    Bishop, J., Leahy, J. & Schweet, R. (1960). Formation of the peptide chain of hemoglobin. Proc. Nat. Acad. USA 46, 1030-1038: 1037.


    transfer RNA A relatively small RNA molecule that transfers a given amino acid to a polypeptide chain during translation q. v. of messenger RNA at the site of protein synthesis in a ribosome; tRNA.

    Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics: 250.