Result of Your Query

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Z

diversitydiversitate (lat.); diversité (fr.); Diversität (ger.)

  • 1) The condition or quality of being diverse, different, or varied; difference, unlikeness. (OED 1989)
    diversity
    79 AD

    [diversitas animalium in pastu [the difference of animals with respect to nutrition]

    Pliny (79 AD). Naturalis historia: xci.
    c. 215

    intuebitur quoque etiam quae sit ratio animarum quae ve diversitas animalium vel eorum, quae in aquis vivunt, vel avium vel ferarum, quae ve sit causa, quod in tam multas species singula genera deducantur [He will perceive what is the reason of soul and the meaning of the diversity among animals, whether those that live in water, or birds, or beasts; and for what cause each genus is divided into so many species]

    Origenes (c. 215). De principiis (Peri archon) II, 11, 5 (sec. translationem Rufin) [Engl. transl. by G.W. Butterworth 1936].

    c. 400

    respice innumerabilitatem stellarum; respice tanta genera seminum, tantas diuersitates animalium, quidquid natat in aquis, repit in terra, uolitat in aere, circuit in caelo: omnia ista, quam magna, quam praeclara, quam pulchra, quam stupenda! ecce qui fecit haec omnia, deus tuus est. [Contemplate the unnumbered multitude of the stars, consider the endless variety of seeding plants, the huge diversity of animal species, all those that swim in the waters or slither along the ground or fly in the air or circle in the heavens: how great all these things are, how magnificent, how beautiful, how amazing! And he who made them all is your God.]

    Augustinus Hipponensis (c. 400). Enarrationes in Psalmos: 145, 12 [Engl. transl. by M. Boulding 2004].

    426

    in caeli et terrae et maris multimoda et uaria pulchritudine, in ipsius lucis tanta copia tam que mirabili specie, in sole ac luna et sideribus, in opacitatibus nemorum, in coloribus et odoribus florum, in diuersitate ac multitudine uolucrum garrularum atque pictarum, in multiformi specie tot tantarum que animantium, quarum illae plus habent admirationis, quae molis minimum (plus enim formicularum et apicularum opera stupemus quam inmensa corpora ballaenarum) [Shall I speak of the manifold and various loveliness of sky, and earth, and sea; of the plentiful supply and wonderful qualities of the light; of sun, moon, and stars; of the shade of trees; of the colours and perfume of flowers; of the multitude of birds, all differing in plumage and in song; of the variety of animals, of which the smallest in size are often the most wonderful,—the works of ants and bees astonishing us more than the huge bodies of whales]

    Augustine of Hippo (426). De civitate Dei XXII, 24 [Engl. transl. by M. Dods 1871].

    c. 875

    Siquidem diuersitas hominum a se ipsis, qua uniuscuiusque species ab aliis discernitur et staturae modus uariatur, non ex natura prouenit sed ex uitio et diuersitate locorum et temporum, terrarum, aquarum, aerum, escarum caeterorum que similium in quibus nascuntur et nutriuntur. De diuersitate morum cogitationum que superfluum est dicere, cum omnibus manifestum sit ex diuisione naturae post peccatum initium sumpsisse.
    [For the diversity of men among themselves by which the form of each is distinguished from the others and the measure of stature is varied does not proceed from nature but from the defect and diversity of places and times, of lands, of waters, of airs, of diets, and of the other circumstances of this sort of their birth and breeding. Of the diversity of manners and opinions it is superfluous to speak for it is obvious to all that these took their origin from the division of nature after sin.]

    John Scotus Eriugena (c. 875). Periphyseon (De diuisione naturae): II, 7 (Patrologia Latina 122, 533B) [Engl. transl. I.P. Sheldon-Williams 1972].

    c. 1090

    Haec quoque diversitas et in Africanis, et in aliis Occidentalibus conciliis saepenumero invenitur, quibus item aera praefigitur. Qualibet autem occasione huiusmodi diversitas evenerit, nequaquam tamen nobis fidem rerum impedire debebit; cum et in ipsis sacris litteris diversa temporum praenotatio nullo modo rerum veritatem impedierit. […] ut etiam diversitas statutorum nequaquam absurda vel contraria videatur, cum diversitati temporum, locorum sive personarum apertissime distributa reperiatur.

    Bernold of Constance (c. 1090). De vitanda excommunicatorum communione (Patrologia latina 148, 1181A-1218C): 1207A; 1215A; cf. Schreiner, K. (2013). Gemeinsam leben. Spiritualität, Lebens- und Verfassungsformen klösterlicher Gemeinschaften in Kirche und Gesellschaft des Mittelalters: 136.

    c. 1100

    [quicquid diversum est, hoc utique verum non est; est enim Deus verax

    Walram of Naumburg (c. 1100). Liber de unitate ecclesiae conservanda (Hannover 1883): 128.]

    c. 1150

    [quomodo Ecclesia Dei sit una in se et secundum se, et quomodo sit multiformis secundum filios suos, quos diversis modis et diversis legibus et institutis informavit et informat, a sanguine Abel justi usque ad novissimum electum in diversi temporibus et in diversis ordinibus […] Verum hoc corpus Ecclesiae Spiritu sancto vivificari, et [per] diversa membra diversis temporibus et aetatibus discretum et distinctum, a primo Abel justo incoepit, et in novissimo electo consummabitur, semper unum una fide, sed multiformiter distinctum multiplici vivendi varietate

    Anselm of Havelberg (c. 1150). De unitate fidei et multiformitate vivendi ab Abel iusto usque ad novissimum electum (Patrologia latina 188, 1141-1169): 1143D; 1144C; cf. Eberhard, W. (1985). Ansätze zur Bewältigung ideologischer Pluralität im 12. Jahrhundert: Pierre Abelard und Anselm von Havelberg. Historisches Jahrbuch 105, 353-387: 371.]

    c. 1260

    Relinquitur igitur dicendum quod, cum forme rerum naturalium sint sicut numeri – in quibus est diuersitas speciei addita uel subtracta unitate, ut dicitur in VIII Methaphysice –, oportet intelligere diuersitatem formarum naturalium, secundum quas materia constituitur in diuersis speciebus, ex hoc quod una addit perfectionem super aliam.

    Thomas Aquinas (c. 1260). Quaestiones disputatae de anima (ed. Leonina, B.-C. Bazán, vol. XXIV, 1, 1996): 80 (qu. 9, resp.).

    1298-99

    Seignors emperaor et rois, dux et marquois, cuens, chevaliers et borgiois, et toutes gens que volés savoir les deverses jenerasions des homes et les deversités des deverses region dou monde, si prennés cestui livre et le feites lire.

    Marco Polo [1298-99]. Milione. Le divisament dou monde (ed. L.F. Benedetto, Florence 1928: 3; ed. G. Ronchi, Milano 1982: 305).

    1371

    ai veu et environé moint pais et mointes diverses provinces et mointes diverses regiouns et diverses isles […] y demoerent moutz des diverses gentz des diverses leis et des diverses facions des quelles terres et isles jeo parleray plus plenerement et diveseray ascune partie des choses qe y sont. [...]
    Il y a plusours autres diversez pays e mout d’autres mervailles par dela qe jeo n’ay mie tout veu, si n’en saveroie proprement parler. Et meismemente en païs ouquel j’ay esté y a plusours diversités dont jeo ne fais point mencioun, qar trop seroit longe chose a tout deviser.

    Jean de Mandeville [1371]. Le livre des merveilles du monde (ed. C. Deluz, Paris 2000): 92-3; 478.

    1712

    Nor is his Goodness less seen in the Diversity, than in the Multitude of living Creatures.

    Addison, J. (1712). Spectator No. 519 (October 25): 1 (also in: London 1966, vol. IV, 136-139: 137).
    1751

    chaque degré dʼerreur auroit fait une nouvelle espece: & à force dʼécarts répétés seroit venue la diversité infinie des animaux que nous voyons aujourdʼhui; qui sʼaccroîtra peut-être encore avec le temps, mais à laquelle peut-être la suite des siecles nʼapporte que des accroissemens imperceptibles.

    Maupertuis, P.L.M. (1751). Système de la nature (OEuvres, vol. 2, Lyon 1768, 135-184): 164. (§ XLV).
    1820

    c’est à cette même cause [les circonstances] qu’il faut attribuer l’extrême diversité des productions de la nature.   

    Lamarck, J.B. (1820). Système analytique des connaissances positives de l’homme: 142.    

    1855

    Le Cap est probablement, de toutes les régions, celle qui offre le moins d’espèces communes avec d’autres, celle aussi qui, étant divisée en sous-régions, présente le plus de diversité d’espèces d’une subdivision à l’autre.

    Candolle, A. de (1855). Geographie botanique raisonnée, vol. 1: 592.

    1859

    diversity in the breeds […] the beautiful and harmonious diversity of nature […] diversity of instinct in the same species

    Darwin, C. (1859). On the Origin of Species: 18; 169; 210.

    1860

    he must be allowed to have made a very important contribution to an interesting department of science, even if his theory fails in the endeavor to explain the origin or diversity of species.

    Gray, A. (1860). Review of Darwin’s Theory on the origin of species by means of natural selection. American Journal of Science and Arts (Ser. 2) 29, 153-184: 170.

    1898

    cette diversité d’organisation que nous constatons dès les premiers âges du monde

    Jaccard, P. (1898). Les monstres dans le monde organique et les lois le la morphologie. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 34, 402-427: 407.

    1900

    la richesse florale est sensiblement proportionnée à la diversité des conditions biologiques de chaque territoire

    Jaccard, P. (1900). Contribution au problème de l’immigration post-glaciaire de la flore alpine. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 36, 87-130: 98.

  • 2) The condition of embracing different species, a measure for the magnitude of this condition, especially with respect to the number of species and their equal distribution in terms of numbers of individuals.
    1901

    la portion des genres aux espèces, ce que nous appellerons le coefficient générique, n’est pas fonction constante de la diversité des espèces. Il semble qu’il y ait, dans la répartition des conditions biologiques, quelque chose d’analogue aux variations quantitatives et aux variations qualitatives; les unes détermineraient le nombre des espèces, les autres le degré de leur dissemblance spécifique et générique.

    Jaccard, P. (1901). Étude comparative de la distribution florale dans une portion des Alpes et du Jura. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 37, 547-579: 573-4.

    1902

    il importe, pour éviter toute équivoque, de bien distinguer dans la distribution florale d’un territoire donné la diversité numérique des espèces de leur diversité systématique [...] Dans toute association végétale, dans la prairie alpine en particulier, il y a lieu de distinguer la diversité numérique des espèces ou richesse florale de la diversité systématique des espèces ou composition florale

    Jaccard, P. (1902). Lois de distribution florale dans la zone alpine. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 38, 69-130: 75; 86.

    1910

    extreme diversity in every department of the great world of life […] large amount of diversity of species we have seen to occur in single fields

    Wallace, A.R. (1910). The World of Life: 108.

    1922

    The diversity of plants and animals is too great to admit of giving a complete list of existing forms.

    Vavilov, I.V. (1922). The law of homologous series in variation. Journal of Genetics 12, 47-89: 52.

    1926

    A systematic and geographical analysis has definitely established that the diversity of varieties and races of soft wheat is concentrated in the South-West of Asia. [...] The entire diversity of morphological and physiological characters, established at present for soft wheats, is contained in the mountainous districts of South-Western Asia. […]

    It is very probable […] that mountainous districts, being the centres of varietal diversity, were also the home of primeval agriculture

    Vavilov, N.I. (1926). Studies on the Origin of Cultivated Plants. Bulletin of Applied Botany and Plant-Breeding 16 (2), 1-248: 155-6; 219.

    1928

    indices d’une diversité écologique plus grande

    Jaccard, P. (1928). Phytosociologie et phytodémographie. Bulletin Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 56, 441-463: 446.

    1937

    Les oiseaux (échassiers, rapaces, insectivores, etc.) offrent une grande diversité d’espèces.

    Bouvier, G. & Bouvier, S. (1937). Aperçu sur l’élevage bovin dans la Province du Lomami-Kasaï (Congo belge). Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 79, 73-81: 74.

    1943

    It is suggested that the parameter α should be known as the ‘index of diversity’ of the population.

    Fisher, R.A., Corbet, A.S. & Williams, C.B. (1943). The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J. Anim. Ecol. 12, 42-58: 49.

    1944

    the index of diversity, α, is a measure of the extent to which the units under discussion are collected into larger groups […] a higher value of α means that the same number of units are divided into more groups, i.e. in the present case it means that the same number of species will be classified into more genera, with of course fewer species per genus, unless the ‘sample’ is larger. A low value of α means fewer genera with a higher average number of species per genus.

    Williams, C.B. (1944). Some applications of the logarithmic series and the index of diversity to ecological problems. Journal of Ecology 32, 1-44: 26-7.

    1948

    When men began to analyzse their impressions, to ask themselves in what this strange spell that wild places held over them consisted, they found the situation exceedingly complex. It depended in the first place upon the multitude and diversity of the living creatures that surrounded them.

    Skutch, A. (1948). Earth and man. Audubon Magazine 50, 356-359: 358.

    1956

    Una propriedad de importancia esencial en el estudio de la estructura, dinamiso y evolución de las comunidades naturales es la riqueza de especies, expresable por medio de un indice de diversidad tal que sea independiente de la amplitud de la muestra sobre la que se determina.

    Margalef, R. (1956). Información y diversidad especifica en las comunidades de organismos. Investigación Pesquería 3: 99-106: 99.

    1957

    The index of diversity represents the wealth of species. It is high in communities that include a great number of species and in which the number of individuals of each species decreases relatively slowly on passing from the more abundant to the less abundant ones. The index of diversity is low in communities of few species with a rapid decrease in the number of individuals per species on passing from the dominant ones to those successively less important numerically.

    Margalef, R. (1957). La teoría de la información en ecología. Mem. R. Acad. Barcelona 32, 373-449 [English transl. by W. Hall: Information theory in ecology. General Systems. 3, 36-71: 60].

    1960
    Biotic diversity is a product of evolution, and is therefore dependent upon the length of time through which a given biota has developed in an uninterrupted fashion.
    Fischer, A.G. (1960). Latitudinal variations in organic diversity. Evolution 14, 64-81: 80.
    1964

    one can imagine two quite separate pathways whereby the species diversity of an existing community might be enhanced. One way would be for more species to come and live there, and the other way would be for the existing species to adjust their numbers so that the rare ones become commoner and/or the common ones rarer. There are two components of species diversity, so to speak: number of species and ‘equitability’. (We choose the word ‘equitability’ here rather than ‘evenness’, since numerical equality among the species is too much to expect[)]. For some purposes, it is highly desirable to have a parameter like H(s) [scil. the Shannon-Wiener function] which takes two such different things into account and reduces them to a common scale.

    Lloyd, M. & Ghelardi, R.J. (1964). A table for calculating the ‘equitability’ component of species diversity. Journal of Animal Ecology 33, 217-225: 217.

    1966

    I still believe that variety itself is no criterion for making decisions about how to proceed; that diversity does involve the matter of making choices. The really important thing is, how do you choose variety?

    Brinser, A. (1966). Remark. In: Darling, F.F. & Milton, J.P. (eds.). Future Environments of North America: 219-220: 219.

    1966

    Perhaps, the most appalling aspect of modern man’s insensitive degradation of the environment has been the mounting destruction of earth’s natural diversity and the creation of monotonous, uniform human habitats. Ecology has shown us that varied ecosystems are healthy, relatively stable environments, better able to withstand stresses; seen in this context, the contemporary trend toward creating an artificial, bland, standardized biosphere is a fundamental thread to the quality of human existence, if not man’s very survival. With each loss of variety, our potential for human choice, freedom and change narrows.

    Milton, J.P. (1966). Retrospect. In: Darling, F.F. & Milton, J.P. (eds.). Future Environments of North America, xv-xvii: xvi.

    1977

    1. Diversity promotes the stability of ecosystems. 2. Diversity increases the possibility of future benefits. 3. Diversity is a source of human delight. 4. Protecting diversity is an ethical necessity.

    Roush, G. (1977). Why save diversity? Nature Conservancy News 27, 9-12: 9.

    1983

    The diversity of animal species has been used on innumerable occasions to provide conceptual support for social differentiation among humans; and there can have been few societies where ‘nature’ has never been appealed to for legitimation and justification.

    Thomas, K. (1983). Man and the Natural World. Changing Attitudes in England 1500-1800: 61.

    1984

    the inclusion of diversity as a management goal is a revolution in thought.

    Salwasser, H. Thomas, J.W. & Samson, F. (1984). Applying the diversity concept to national forest management. In: Cooley, J.L. & Cooley, J.H. (eds.). Natural Diversity in Forest Ecosystems, 59-70: 60; cf. Salwasser, H. & Tappeiner, J.C. II (1981). An ecosystem approach to integrated timber and wildlife habitat management. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference 46, 473-487.

    2011

    Die Diversität ist ein Maß für den Gestaltreichtum und die Vielfalt biologischer Systeme, insbesondere für die Anzahl der Arten und die Gleichverteilung der Individuen über die Arten in einer Region.

    Toepfer, G. (2011). Historisches Wörterbuch der Biologie. Geschichte und Theorie der biologischen Grundbegriffe, vol. 1: 351.

Whittaker, R.H. (1972). Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon 21, 213-251.

Gaston, K.J. (ed.) (1996). Biodiversity. A Biology of Numbers and Difference.

Takacs, D. (1996). The Idea of Biodiversity. Philosophies of Paradise.

Ghilarov, A. (1996). What does “biodiversity” mean – scientific problem or convenient myth? Trends Ecol. Evol. 1, 304-306.

Eser, U. (2001). Die Grenze zwischen Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft neu definieren: boundary work am Beispiel es Biodiversitätsbegriffs. Verh. Gesch. Theor. Biol. 7, 35-152.

Oksanen, M. & Pietarinen, J. (eds.) (2004). Philosophy and Biodiversity.

Sarkar, S. (2005). Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy.

Maclaurin, J. & Sterelny, K. (2008). What is Biodiversity?