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biomeBiom (ger.)

  • A biotic community of plants and animals; spec. such a community in a prehistoric period. (OED)
    past climates and biotic communities, or biomes
    Clements, F.E. (1916). Plant Succession: 319; cf. Phillips, J. (1931). The biotic community. J. Ecol. 19, 1-24: 4; Jax, K. (2002). Die Einheiten der Ökologie: 71f.
    the whole complex of organisms present in an ecological unit may be called the biome
    Tansley, A.G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16, 284-307: 306.
    the biome as a social organism
    Clements, F.E. & Shelford, V.E. (1939). Bio-Ecology: 20ff.; cf. Carpenter, J.R. (1939). The biome. Amer. Midl. Nat. 21, 75-91.

    Formation is used when the concern is with plant communities only, biome when the concern is with both plants and animals.

    Whittaker, R.H. (1970). Communities and Ecosystems: 51.


    Mit «Biom» bezeichnen wir […] große ökologische Einheiten, die sowohl die Umwelt als auch die biotischen Komponenten einschließen.

    Walter, H. (1976). Die ökologischen Systeme der Kontinente (Biogeosphäre). Prinzipien ihrer Gliederung mit Beispielen: 6.


    biome A biogeographical region or formation; amajor regional ecological communitycharacterized by distinctive life forms and principal plant (terrestrial biomes) or animal (marine biomes) species; see Appendix 5. 

    Lincoln, R.J., Boxshall, G.A. & Clark, P.F. (1982). A Dictionary of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics: 33.